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Miami, Florida: Expert reveals how to make your penis thicker – instantly

John A. Macon 3229 Golden Street Miami, FL 33179

There are two types of men in the world: men who are happy with their penis size and shape, and men who aren’t.

And then there’s the guy who has the 19-inch penis.

Penises, like bodies and people in general, come in all different shapes and sizes.

Some are big, some are small. Some are thick and some are thin. Whatever the shape, there is never any need to be self-conscious about your member.

However, if you were looking to gain a little girth – without resorting to surgery – an expert has revealed injections, or more specifically fat injections can give men a temporary girth boost.

Dr Debby Herbenick wrote for Men’s Health: “Thanks to injections or fat injections, men can even get a little thicker though the effect often wears way with time and some surgeons feel more evidence is needed before fat grafts for penis augmentation can be formally recommended.”

Last year, certified plastic surgeon Dr David Alessi told the Daily Star Online: “Men are asking for increase in girth.

“Fat injections to increase girth involve taking fat from the belly and injecting it deeply into the penis.”

This procedure can take around 45 minutes – and can be done in your lunch break.

It will also set you back around £4,500 and you won’t be able to have sex for six weeks while the penis heals.

Debby added another option included devices men can wear daily underneath their clothes that can gradually stretch the penis to add girth or length.

Debby recommended to wait a while before altering your penis: “We know that many men who think their penis is too small actually have a totally normal and average (or more) sized penis.”

She said porn has created unrealism expectations for men and what they consider an average penis size.

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Phoenix, ArizonaLe: Levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and its degradation

Bryan K. Keefer 3490 Martha Street Phoenix, AZ 85008

Mucuna pruriens is the best known natural source of L-dopa, the gold standard for treatment of Parkinsonism. M. pruriens varieties are protein rich supplements, and are used as food and fodder worldwide. Here, we report L-dopa contents in seeds of fifty six accessions of four M. pruriens varieties, M. pruriens var. pruriens, M. pruriens var. hirsuta, M. pruriens var. utilis and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis, quantified by HPTLC-densitometry. L-dopa contents varied between 0.58 to 6.42 (%, dr. wt.). High and low L-dopa yielding genotypes/chemotypes of M. pruriens could be multiplied for medicinal and nutritional purposes, respectively. HPTLC profiles of M. pruriens seeds on repeated extraction (24 h) in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol followed by development in butanol:acetic acid:water (4:1:1, v/v) showed consistent degradation of L-dopa (Rf 0.34 ± 0.02) into a second peak (Rf 0.41 ± 0.02). An average of 52.11% degradation of L-dopa was found in seeds of M. pruriens varieties. Since M. pruriens seeds and/or L-dopa are used for treatment of Parkinson’s disease and as an aphrodisiac both in modern and/or traditional systems of medicine, the finding of high level of L-dopa degradation (in pure form and in M. pruriens extracts) into damaging quinones and ROS is very significant.

Introduction

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. is a climbing legume distributed across the tropics. Four varieties of the species have been documented so far from south India, of which M. pruriens var. pruriens is well distributed1,2. M. pruriens var. hirsuta and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis are restricted to the southern parts of the Indian peninsula, and M. pruriens var. utilis occurs only in cultivation2. M. pruriens var. pruriens and Mucuna pruriens var. utilis find importance as food, feed, cover crop and fodder and are extensively cultivated worldwide3,4,5,6. M. pruriens varieties propagate mostly through their seeds. M. pruriens var. pruriens is best known as the natural source of the aromatic amino acid, L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (levodopa or L-dopa) (Fig. 1). L-dopa is widely used for the clinical treatment of the neurodegenerative disorder, Parkinson’s disease (PD)7,8,9,10,11. Seeds of M. pruriens var. pruriens have long been used in Indian traditional medicine for treatment of PD and also for its aphrodisiac property. M. pruriens var. pruriens is the only variety of M. pruriens extensively studied for its chemical and biological properties12,13,14,15,16,17. L-dopa, 5-methoxy-N,N,dimethyl tryptamine and 5-hydroxy tryptamine (serotonin) are the major therapeutic constituents in M. pruriens var. pruriens.

PD is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, and subsequent deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain areas. PD affects motor activities including writing and speaking abilities. Recent studies suggested oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system as the major factors involved in pathogenesis of PD18. Patients with PD are treated with L-dopa to improve their motor functions. Dopamine as such does not cross the blood brain barrier whereas L-dopa does, and in the central nervous system dopa decarboxylase converts it into dopamine. Thus L-dopa acts as a precursor to dopamine. So far L-dopa is considered as the gold standard for the treatment of PD and dopamine-responsive dystonia7,8,9,10,11,19. Oxidative stress, caused by oxidation of L-dopa and dopamine, generating semiquinones, quinones, oxygen radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), play a role in neuronal cell death in PD20,21. Moreover, O-quinone products of L-dopa autoxidation are cytotoxic to cellular systems22,23,24,25. L-dopa is also an antinutritional factor and its consumption causes vomiting, nausea, abdominal distention, dyskinesia etc26. This is due to the conversion of L-dopa into dopamine in the peripheral nervous system by dopa decarboxylase. Moreover, M. pruriens var. pruriens and L-dopa could recover spermatogenic loss which makes them the treatment of choice for infertility27,28.

Vachhani et al., 2011 and Sundaram and Gurumoorthi, 2012 standardized protocols for HPTLC-based quantification of L-dopa in M. pruriens var. pruriens seeds29,30. Modi et al., 2008 (5.60%, dr. wt.), Behara et al., 2010 (4.83%), Raina and Khatri, 2011 (2.23–5.36%) and Raina et al., 2012 (3.29–5.44%) quantified L-dopa contents in M. pruriens var. pruriens seeds by HPTLC31,32,33,34. Mennickent et al., 200735 and Vachhani et al., 201129 standardized HPTLC-based estimation of L-dopa in pharmaceutical formulations. Kshirsagar et al., 200836 (2.11–2.19%), Modi et al., 200831 (3.80–4.30%) and Behara et al., 201032 (7.48–8.44%) quantified L-dopa contents in marketed formulations and capsules by HPTLC. Shah and Joshi, 2010 estimated L-dopa in M. pruriens var. pruriens seeds (7.20%) and its formulations (4.20–5.60%) by spectroflourimetry37. L-dopa contents in seeds of Stizolobium pruriens var. utilis (M. pruriens var. utilis) (3.9–10.6%)38, M. pruriens var. utilis (4.39–5.21%)5 and M. pruriens var. pruriens (4.0–6.0%)6 were estimated by HPLC. Soumyanath et al., 2012 quantified L-dopa in M. pruriens var. pruriens formulations (3.0–6.0%) by HPLC39. Singh et al., 2010 developed HPLC-based quantification of L-dopa in M. pruriens var. utilis40. Jiang et al., 2010 carried out HPLC-MS/MS quantification of L-dopa in rat plasma41. Dethy et al., 1997 determined threshold L-dopa levels in plasma of patients with advanced PD by in vitro microdialysis-HPLC42.

Most L-dopa quantification studies in M. pruriens seeds and formulations by chromatographic techniques (HPTLC, HPLC) are on limited number of samples and involved prolonged, multistep extraction procedures in acidic media. Screening of more M. pruriens varieties/accessions could lead to the discovery of high (elite) and low L-dopa yielding accessions suitable for medicinal and nutritional purposes, respectively. Secondly, in our preliminary HPTLC profiling of M. pruriens extracts and L-dopa standard, we repeatedly detected labile L-dopa-based degradation signals. Most similar HPTLC/HPLC studies never recorded this degradation signal of L-dopa5,6,29,31,32,33,34,35,36,38,39,40,41,42. Here we report (i) L-dopa contents in seeds of thirty accessions of the four M. pruriens varieties viz., M. pruriens var. pruriens (21), M. pruriens var. hirsuta (3), M. pruriens var. utilis (5) and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis (1), collected from various locations in Kerala in south India, (ii) L-dopa contents in second generation seeds of twenty-six accessions of M. pruriens var. pruriens (21) and M. pruriens var. utilis (5) grown in an Experimental Plot (EP) under identical ecological conditions, (iii) degradation patterns of L-dopa in M. pruriens seed extracts, (iv) quantification of L-dopa degraded products in seeds (30 wild, 26 EP grown accessions) of four M. pruriens varieties and (v) characterization of L-dopa degraded moieties by HPTLC, DART-MS and LC/EI-MS.

Results

L-dopa contents in M. pruriens varieties

L-dopa contents in wild M. pruriens var. pruriens accessions varied from 0.89 to 6.42 (%, dr. wt.) (Table 1). Percentage contents of second degradation peak (SDP) ranged from 0.1 to 3.85% (%, dr. wt., based on L-dopa calibration) (Table 1). In second generation M. pruriens var. pruriens seeds grown in the EP, L-dopa contents varied from 0.58 to 4.32%, and % SDP varied from zero (non-detectable) to 3.34%. L-dopa contents in wild accessions of M. pruriens var. hirsuta ranged from 1.01 to 4.27%, and % SDP ranged from 0.01 to 1.40%. L-dopa contents in seeds of M. pruriens var. utilis wild accessions varied from 0.65 to 2.67%, and SDP contents varied from 0.12 to 3.82%. In EP grown accessions of M. pruriens var. utilis, L-dopa contents ranged from 1.33 to 3.97%, and SDP contents were zero to 0.77%. M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis wild accession showed 4.34% of L-dopa with SDP 0.01% (Table 1). Fruiting was not observed in M. pruriens var. hirsuta and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis in the Field Gene Bank (FGB). This is the first report of L-dopa quantification in M. pruriens var. hirsuta and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis. This is also the first quantitative determination of degradation products of L-dopa in M. pruriens seeds.

In wild M. pruriens var. pruriens, M. pruriens var. hirsuta and M. pruriens var. utilis seeds, L-dopa contents did not show any positive correlation with altitudes of their collection locations (Acc. No. 3912, 1 m, L-dopa/SDP 1.63%/1.15%; Acc. No. 4503, 10 m, L-dopa/SDP 1.78%/3.85%; Acc. No. 4091, 802 m, L-dopa/SDP 1.66%/2.96%) (Table 1). M. pruriens var. pruriens and M. pruriens var. utilis seeds grown in EP under identical conditions did not show any correlation in L-dopa contents with their parent (wild) accessions (Table 1). Highest L-dopa contents were detected in seeds of wild accessions of M. pruriens var. pruriens (Acc. No. 4283, 6.42%; Acc. No. 4498, 6.11%), M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis (Acc. No. 4147, 4.34%) and M. pruriens var. hirsuta (Acc. No. 3820, 4.27%). Lowest L-dopa percentages were found in EP grown M. pruriens var. pruriens seeds (Acc. No. 4072, 0.58%; Acc. No. 3822, 0.84%) (Table 1). Again, highest L-dopa yielding M. pruriens seeds (Acc. No. 4283, 6.42%; Acc. No. 4498, 6.11%; Acc. No. 4147, 4.34%; Acc. No. 3820, 4.27%) showed lowest degradation levels (Acc. No. 4283, 0.00%; Acc. No. 4498, 0.10%; Acc. No. 4147, 0.01%; 3820, 0.01%). Similarly, lowest L-dopa contents (Acc. No. 4072, 0.58%; Acc. No. 3822, 0.84%; Acc. No. 4100, 0.95%; Acc. No. 4090, 0.97%) were seen in seeds with high levels of degradation (Acc. No. 4072, 1.77%; Acc. No. 3822, 2.93%; Acc. No. 4100, 3.19%; Acc. No. 4090, 2.75%).

Total SDP (72.15%) in wild (30) and EP grown (26) M. pruriens accessions was 52.11% of total L-dopa content (138.45%) (Table 1). These data showed that the degradation levels of L-dopa in M. pruriens seeds in extraction media (1:1 formic acid-alcohol, 24 h) are highly significant. Standard L-dopa also showed similar degradation into a second signal on HPTLC profile (L-dopa Rf 0.34 ± 0.02; SDP Rf 0.41 ± 0.02). Previous studies rarely mentioned30 the detection of L-dopa degradation signals on chromatographic profiles of M. pruriens seeds and formulations.

L-dopa degradation

Freshly dissolved L-dopa standard (in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol) on HPTLC showed only one signal at Rf 0.34 ± 0.02 (Fig. 2a). But, L-dopa standard (decomposed) showed two signals, one at Rf 0.34 ± 0.02 (L-dopa) and a SDP at Rf 0.41 ± 0.02 (Fig. 2b). M. pruriens seed extracts (wild, EP grown) showed two significant signals (Rf 0.30–0.40, 0.40–0.46) at varying ratios (Fig. 2c,d). Fresh (24 h extracted in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol) M. pruriens var. pruriens seed extract, decomposed (24 h extracted, dissolved in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol for seven days) M. pruriens var. pruriens seed extract and decomposed L-dopa standard showed degradation patterns on HPTLC, DART-MS and LC/EI-MS (Fig. 2, Fig. S1-S7). On DART-MS, fresh L-dopa showed only its own major M+H+ signal at 198.09 (Fig. S1). Fresh M. pruriens var. pruriens extract (24 h extracted) showed M+H+ signals at 123.06 (medium), 154.10 (medium, dopamine), 162.07 (medium), 198.09 (only major, L-dopa,), 199.09 (minor) and 224.11 (minor) (Fig. S2). Decomposed M. pruriens var. pruriens extract (24 h extracted, dissolved in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol for seven days) showed M+H+ signals at 129.08 (medium), 176.08 (major), 190.10 (major), 191.11 (minor), 192.13 (minor), 193.13 (minor, dopachrome or 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid), 195.17 (minor, dopaquinone, leucodopachrome), 204.11 (major), 218.13 (medium), 244.12 (medium) and 245.13 (minor) (Fig. S3).

Briefly, fresh M. pruriens var. pruriens extract (24 h extracted) showed only major signals of L-dopa and dopamine. Decomposed M. pruriens var. pruriens extract did not show L-dopa and dopamine, instead showed a group of degradation signals at the M+H+ 190.10, 191.11, 192.13, 193.13 and 195.17. These DART-MS signals correspond to dopachrome, leucodopachrome, dopaquinone, other quinones and ROS (Fig. S3). Decomposed standard L-dopa and decomposed (24 h extracted, dissolved in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol for seven days) M. pruriens var. pruriens seed extract also showed degradation patterns in LC/EI-MS (Fig. S4-S7).

The degradation patterns of L-dopa in M. pruriens var. pruriens seed extracts and standard L-dopa in solvent media of 1:1 formic acid-alcohol (acidic), 20 mM Tris buffer (pH 7.2, neutral) and water at various time periods (1 h after initiation of extraction, 1, 7, 30 days after initiation of extraction) were tested through HPTLC profiling. Time dependent degradation was observed in M. pruriens var. pruriens extracts and in standard L-dopa at these pH values (Fig. S8-S19). The degradation rates of L-dopa in M. pruriens var. pruriens extracts and standard L-dopa were relatively low at 4 °C.

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Norcross, Georgia: Pastor who impregnated teen sentenced to prison in Chesco

Stanley A. Rowan 732 Fowler Avenue Norcross, GA 30071

A former Chester County pastor who acted as a surrogate father to a teenager he impregnated was sentenced to three to six years in prison on Friday, a month after a judge rejected a previous plea deal as too lenient.

Jacob Matthew Malone, who turned 35 on Friday, pleaded guilty at the Chester County Justice Center in West Chester to institutional sexual assault, corruption of minors, and endangering the welfare of children. The former pastor at Calvary Fellowship, a nondenominational church in Downingtown, also will serve five months' probation and will be registered as a sex offender for 15 years.

The woman, now 20, told police Malone gave her alcohol as an 18-year-old and raped her on several occasions while she lived with him, his wife, and their children in Malone's home in West Whiteland Township. Malone, who was her guardian, admitted he gave her alcohol but said the sexual encounters were consensual.

Sexual contact, which included kissing and touching, occurred almost daily during her senior year in high school.

"This is one of the times when the court system fails," said Judge Jacqueline Cody, adding that the woman was technically of the age of consent but that Malone had been acting as her father when he promoted the sexual contact. "You are serving a sentence much lighter than the crime deserves."

The sentence is at the top of standard guidelines. Malone will get credit for the more than one year he has served since his arrest in January 2016.

Under the agreement, prosecutors withdrew the most serious charge of rape. Prosecutors said there was a question as to whether they could prove the absence of consent.

"Sir, you have taken responsibility for a very, very serious series of crimes that have completely altered somebody's life," the judge said, calling his behavior "inexcusable."

Friday's plea was Malone's second attempt at securing a deal for himself. Last month, the judge rejected as too lenient an agreement with prosecutors that would have given him a minimum of two years in prison. The woman also was dissatisfied with that agreement, saying "Jake" had taken advantage of her "mentally, physically, spiritually."

The woman agreed with the new deal prosecutors and Malone's lawyer presented on Friday, and the judge accepted it.

The young woman "is pleased he will be spending an additional year in jail," District Attorney Emily Provencher said.

Evan Kelly, Malone's attorney, said in a statement his client "has always been adamant" he did not rape her.

"He did, however, commit other crimes, and for that he is embarrassed, ashamed and truly remorseful," Kelly said.

"I'm deeply sorry for the way my failures and weaknesses have hurt [the victim], my family and her family," said Malone, dressed in a blazer and slacks and wearing shackles. "She admired me and trusted me, and I betrayed that."

Malone met her when she was 12 and he was a youth pastor at her church in Arizona. After Malone and his family moved to West Whiteland, he invited her to live with them. She helped look after his three children.

She told police Malone began sexually assaulting her in the fall of 2014. Malone resigned from the Downingtown church in November 2015 after church leaders confronted him about the teen's pregnancy and he admitted he had impregnated her. He had been working at the church for about 18 months.

In January 2016, police asked for the public's help in finding Malone, who they believed was trying to avoid arrest. U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers arrested him on Jan. 18, 2016, when he returned to Newark Liberty International Airport from Ecuador.

In March 2016, the woman gave birth to Malone's daughter, whom last month she called "a sweet, tongkat ali sexual function beautiful and intelligent little girl" in a statement she read in court.

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Marengo, Illinois: LSD to be tested as a ‘cure for depression’ in Britain for the first time

James V. Hummell 2170 Matthews Street Marengo, IL 60152 Now a first-of-its-kind trial will test small doses of the drug in the UK – to see if it could help with depression.

Twenty volunteers will drop acid, then fill in psychological questionnaires and play the board game

The £300,000 experiment is funded by the Beckley Foundation – led by the Countess of Wemyss and March, Amanda Fielding.

She told The Sun, ‘There are studies that show LSD is a wonder drug for curing all sorts of things.

‘We will not be giving people such large doses that they hallucinate but enough to give them a lift.

‘I took it in the 1960s when it was legal and it improved my wellbeing.

‘If this small trial is successful, butea superba information then we will consider applying to the government for more funding to run a larger experiment.’

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